About the existence of attacks of sudden anxiety peoplelearned not so long ago. It means that it is not surprising that many people do not know the reasons for the panic attack, as well as ways to combat it.
And this is despite the fact that 10% of the population is subject to such bouts, that is, every tenth!
Therefore, it is worthwhile to consider in more detail the questions of what a psychic attack is, the symptoms and treatment of this disease. As they say, warned, so armed.
What are mental (panic) attacks
So what is an unknown disease until recently?
A mental attack is a sudden attackstrong fear. It arises unexpectedly for a person, very quickly develops and within a few minutes reaches its peak. In this case, such an attack can happen not only during the day, but at night, even during sleep.
The strength of such a phenomenon does not depend on circumstances surrounding the person.
The place of mental disorders in the modern world
Panic attacks can not only be of a one-time nature, but also be a sign of serious mental disorders.
Attacks of psychic attacks became realproblem for the United States. To date, about 60 million people (and this is 20% of the population) suffer from various panic disorders, and about 3 million people (1.7% of the population) have experienced a psychiatric disorder in a very pronounced form.
Most often from attacks of mental attacks people aged 15-19 suffer, but still no one is immune from them.
Causes of mental attacks
The loss of psychological balance can also provoke psychic attacks. The reasons for this can be the following:
- chronic fatigue;
- presence of mental and somatic diseases;
- the use of substances that stimulate the psyche;
- problems and difficult life circumstances.
The first attack can occur during adolescence, during pregnancy, after the birth of a child or during menopause. This is due to significant changes in the hormonal background in the body.
In addition, there may be internal preconditions for the manifestation of the disease. These include: neuropsychiatric or somatic diseases, drug addiction, alcoholism.
It is necessary to remember that such a disease(mental attacks) does not occur without certain prerequisites in the form of health problems. Earlier, the appearance of psychic attacks was considered a sign of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Symptoms of a psychic attack
The panic attack is notthe only confirmation of such a disorder as a psychic attack. Symptoms can be varied. But there are certain criteria for diagnosing this pathology.
So, if a person really has a psychic attack, the symptoms can be as follows:
- increased sweating;
- increased heart rate and pulse;
- trembling, chills;
- shortness of breath and a feeling of lack of air;
- pain in the abdomen, which can be accompanied by nausea;
- discomfort or pain in the left side of the chest;
- pre-syncope, dizziness, unsteadiness;
- numbness of the limbs and a feeling of "goosebumps" on the skin;
- alternating alternation of heat and cold;
- the presence of the feeling that everything that is happening is unreal;
- fear of dying;
- fear of going insane or doing something unexpected.
As you can see, there are many manifestations. The attack of a psychic attack combines at least the four symptoms listed above. At the same time panic, fear and anxiety do not leave the patient within 10 minutes.
After these symptoms, a psychic attack cango to the next stage, which manifests itself in the form of agoraphobic syndrome - fear of going out, traveling by public transport. The longer the duration of this condition, the greater the possibility of the appearance of depression, during which a decrease in social activity of a person is observed, fatigue, appetite worsens, sleep disorders and problems with sexual life.
How to relieve a psychic attack without help
It is necessary to remember one important detail:Attacks of fear and anxiety can be learned to control yourself. Therefore, it is important not to get confused during the next attack, but to know exactly what to do with mental attacks.
There are many methods and methods of control,but one of the most effective in practice remains the method of controlling breathing. Its principle is very simple - you need to slow your breathing to 4-5 breaths per minute. Take a deep breath (as much as possible), then hold your breath for a few seconds and breathe out deeply. It's best to do this with your eyes closed to feel the movement of the muscles and lungs.
After several such breaths and exhalations, the panic attack begins to recede and soon completely disappears.
Diagnosis of mental attacks
In the event that there are at least four signs of a psychic attack (we spoke about them above), you should immediately contact the therapist for more detailed diagnosis.
The doctor will appoint the patient to take the necessary tests and send them to conduct an electrocardiogram.
If necessary, you may need additional tests from a neurologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, pulmonologist.
After carrying out all examinations and receivingresults of analyzes individually selected the necessary treatment for mental attacks. It can be conducted as a course of medication, psychotherapy or hypnosis.
Medication for panic attacks
In most cases, the treatment of mental attacks is carried out with the help of medication, as this is the most effective way to get rid of this type of disorder.
The most effective treatment is carried out with the help of such groups of drugs as:
Necessary group of drugs or any onea remedy (for example, one of the antidepressants) in each case is selected separately, depending on the nature of the course and the accompanying symptoms of a psychic attack.
In this case, the medication itself includes two stages:
- Elimination of a psychic attack.
- Prevention of the occurrence of a second attack and its secondary signs (depression, etc.) in the future.
Psychic attack is eliminated bytranquilizers (Lorazepam, Diazepam, Clonazepam, Relanium, Alprazolam, Laurafen, etc.), which are administered intravenously or taken orally. The attack completely disappears after 15-20 minutes after the administration of the drug.
This method of treatment has a significant disadvantage:tranquilizers are, to some extent, narcotic drugs, and can also cause the body to become addicted to their active substances. As a result, after a while, taking medications in standard dosages ceases to bring any effect or even causes a strong dependence. The unregulated use of tranquilizers can lead to the emergence of new psychic attacks.
In addition, it is important to know that tranquilizers are notcan cure the disease, but only temporarily eliminate the symptoms, so they are used only as an auxiliary, but not the main drug for the treatment of mental disorders.
The main treatment for panic attacks is carried out forthe use of antidepressants, which not only help to get rid of depression, but also eliminate unnecessary anxiety and unreasonable fears, are treated from a psychic attack. The main drugs that are most often prescribed for treatment are Anafranil, Zoloft, Cipralex and others.
Neuroleptics, as well as tranquilizers, inthe time of treatment of mental attacks act as auxiliary drugs. They are distinguished by a mild effect on the body, but at the same time excellently relieve the vegetative symptoms of psychic attacks. It can be such preparations, as "Propazinum", Etaperazinum "," Sonapaks ".
The second stage of treatment consists in fixingobtained results. At this stage, stabilizing therapy is used, which includes the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TAD), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO), selective serotonergic drugs (SSRIs).
The TAD group has an antipanic effect, butActs start only after 2-3 weeks after the first reception, which is a significant disadvantage. In addition, TAD antidepressants can cause side effects such as dry mouth, constipation, weight gain, etc.
Selective serotonergic drugs (SSRIs)have fewer side effects than the previous version. The main side effects of such drugs: irritability, nervousness and deterioration of sleep in the first 2 weeks after the start of the procedure. The plus is the fact that antidepressants of SSRIs can be taken only once a day.
In parallel with the treatment of a psychic attack, the elimination of its secondary syndromes, such as hypochondria, depression, agoraphobia, also occurs.
Than to treat a psychic attack and what doses,determines the doctor individually. As a rule, the minimum dose is prescribed, after which it can be observed whether the disease is on a decline or continues to develop. All this is done under the supervision of a therapist or another, responsible for the treatment of a doctor. It is strictly prohibited to engage in self-medication with tranquilizers and antidepressants!
With the correct approach to treatment and the implementation of all recommendations in 90% of cases there is a persistent remission to panic attacks.
For a successful recovery from the disease a set of measures is used.
Treatment of panic attacks with the help of psychotherapy
Together with drug treatment, a course of psychotherapy is also held simultaneously, which continues for some time after drug withdrawal, which helps to relive this process more easily.
The sessions of the therapist can be conditionally divided into two types: symptomatic and deep therapy.
In the first case, a psychic attack is consideredas a symptom. The expert helps to understand how the panic attack develops, how you can fight it yourself. As a rule, symptomatic therapy lasts no more than three months.
The depth is to identify the reasons forresulting in an attack. This is the result of a long work, which can drag on for years. The psychotherapist knows the inner world of a person, his attitude to himself, unsatisfied needs and unexpressed feelings. But in the end, the specialist is able to eliminate not only the symptoms of the problem, but also its original cause.
Psychologists teach patients not to seek in themselvesshortcomings, and concentrate on their positive qualities. Only optimistic views on life and positive thinking can drive the disease away and ensure that it will not return.
A separate work is carried out to raise the self-esteem of the patient, as it plays an important role in the development of the personality and perception of the world as a whole.
Combination of medicament and psychotherapeutic methods helps to speed up the healing process, as well as to teach the correct order of actions during a possible future panic attack.
Treatment of panic attacks with the help of hypnosis
Treatment of psychic attacks with the help of hypnosispracticed by doctors-psychiatrists. This method of combating the disorder has recently become more popular due to its effectiveness. The essence of the treatment is simple: during the hypnotic sleep, the patient is given appropriate settings, the main purpose of which is getting rid of mental attacks. After a hypnosis session, patients feel peace, a sense of lightness, a rush of vigor and energy.
The downside of hypnotic treatment is its short-term effect, and also that this method is not suitable for all patients.
Prevent the emergence of panic attacks
People who often suffer from mental illnessdisorders, live in a state of constant stress and stress, resulting in the body's resistance is reduced to critical norms. In such situations, any unforeseen circumstance (for example, a conflict at work) can become the "last straw" and cause a panic attack. However, there are some simple ways that help improve the psychological state, reduce the level of emotional stress and reduce the likelihood of a psychic attack.
- Cold and hot shower.Very simple and at the same time effective way. Jets of cold water, which briefly touch the skin, can stimulate the production of hormones that enhance mood. The method can be used both for prevention, general strengthening of the psychological state, and during an attack of heightened anxiety and panic. How to take a contrast shower? It's very simple, but there are some nuances. Pouring water is important with the head, only then you will get the desired effect. Begin the procedure with warm water. After a few seconds, it should be switched to cold, a few seconds again to warm. In this case, cold water should not be cool, but really cold, even ice. Do not be afraid to get cold - during this procedure it is impossible, because the protective reactions of the body are activated.
- Relaxation of muscles.Learning to relax the muscles, you can simultaneously remove the level of psychological stress. There are many ways of psychological relaxation. Having become acquainted with them in more detail, you can easily pick up one that suits you perfectly.
- A good night's sleep.Nedosyp does not have the best effect on the human nervous system. In the event that it develops into a chronic form, the situation worsens many times, and simultaneously with it the possibility of the appearance of a psychic attack increases.
- Active physical life.It is important to choose the correct intensity of the loads for yourself. At a time when one is enough of the usual charging, others go for fitness, in the pool or hall. The main thing is that you enjoy the classes, because only then they will benefit psychological health.
- Regular meals. Here everything is simple: a hungry person lowers blood sugar, which increases the possibility of a panic attack.
- Absence of stimulants.These include: coffee, energy drinks, cigarettes and alcohol. In this case, the case with alcohol in this regard is unique: one or two glasses help to reduce the attack of panic attack. But the morning hangover only aggravates the situation. In addition, if you take alcohol during each attack, there is a big risk of getting another disease - alcoholism.
Summing up what has been said, one can dothe conclusion that mental disorders, no matter whether a panic attack this or something else, is quite realistic to avoid. To do this, it is enough just to learn how to control your emotions and monitor your psychological health.