Problems with the endocrine system lead to the fact,that disruptions occur in all internal organs. As a result, in order to find their cause, the doctor assigns a series of studies. Among the mass of a wide variety of tests, one will also be appointed that will help to check whether there are violations in carbohydrate metabolism - glucose tolerance. What is it and how it is conducted, that's about this and we'll continue our story. Also very often this study is called a glucose tolerance test or a "sugar curve".
At the heart of it is the response toreceipt of glucose in the body. Carbohydrates are the most important component, but in order that they can bring the body only benefit and filled with strength and energy, there is no way to avoid insulin. It is he who is able to regulate the level of carbohydrates, limiting the sugar content, especially if a person can not do without a daily serving of sweet.
Tolerance to glucose: what is it?
Tolerance to glucose is a laboratoryAn analysis that allows you to identify latent or latent diabetes in a patient. He can also say that a person belongs to those who are at risk of getting diabetes of the second type, and he needs to take all possible measures to prevent this. If there were violations in tolerance, the glucose level in a person, the analysis of which was performed on an empty stomach, slightly exceeds the normal values.
If a test for glucose tolerance is assigned,the norm is indicated in the form of analysis, which is issued in the hands. A violation of tolerance is formed due to the fact that the secretion of insulin decreases and the sensitivity of cells to blood glucose is disturbed.
What causes lead to impaired glucose tolerance?
We have already been able to understand the main andinteresting to many of the question of whether or not glucose tolerance is what it is. And now it is important to know what causes lead to such malfunctions in the body. And they are due to the fact that inevitable violations occur in the secretion of insulin, while also the sensitivity disappears.
Among the main reasons most often doctors identify such:
- pathology of the heart and blood vessels;
- changes in carbohydrate metabolism;
- high blood pressure.
Also, this disease often occurs in those who have relatives who suffer from this disease. Prediabetes can provoke several factors:
- excess weight;
- hormonal therapy;
- conducting a sedentary lifestyle;
- age after 40 years.
Symptoms of glucose tolerance
Very often impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy, this is a very bad condition. But a woman in the situation can independently identify the symptomatology of such a condition by such signs:
- severe itching of the skin;
- dry skin;
- bleeding gums;
- sexual weakness;
- loss of teeth;
- purulent inflammation of the sebaceous glands.
To identify the cause of such symptoms, you need to undergo a test and pass a number of tests, including glucose tolerance. What kind of analysis is it, how does it pass, we will tell further.
How is the tolerance test conducted?
In order to choose the right treatment andto put the most accurate diagnosis, you need to make a diagnosis, in our case - this is a laboratory study - donate blood for glucose tolerance. The most convenient method of testing tolerance is a single load of the body with carbohydrates, which are taken orally. Calculation of their quantity can be done in this way:
- take glucose in the amount of 75 grams and divorce in a glass of warm water, drink all the fluid received and only on an empty stomach;
- patients with large body weight or women bearing a baby, the dose of glucose increases to 100 grams, but in no case more;
- the analysis for glucose tolerance is also done for children, and for them the calculation goes in rigor with their body weight of 1.75 g per 1 kg.
A couple of hours after taking glucose, you needto control the sugar in the body. In this case, the initial parameter should be taken as the result of the analysis, which is done before the intake of glucose. The blood sugar should be in the range of 6.7 mmol / l, although according to doctors, for some, this parameter can be 6.1 mmol / l, so for each individual case it is better to take its parameter personally.
If after two hours the sugar level is within 7.8 mmol / l, then it can already say that the body has impaired glucose tolerance.
But it is worth remembering that when usingsingle determination of the results for violations of carbohydrate metabolism can not notice the peak of the "sugar curve" or simply do not wait for the moment when it drops to the minimum level. That is why the most accurate results are those that spend three hours and at least 5 times. It is possible to carry out blood fences for 4 hours, every half hour.
Tolerance to glucose: the norm
To determine precisely whether there are deviationstolerance in a particular patient, you need to know what are the normal indicators. For this test, the upper limit is 6.7 mmol / L, but the lower limit is the initial indicator, to which glucose, present in the blood, tends. In a healthy person, she returns to the initial index in a couple of hours, but diabetics remain at a high level. That is why there is no lower limit of the norm.
Decrease in the indicators of this test can speakthat in the patient's body pathological failures occur, which lead to disruption of carbohydrate metabolism and a decrease in glucose tolerance. In pregnancy, these disruptions occur much more often, and all because the female body has to work for two. Tolerance can indicate such states:
- secretive diabetes mellitus that does notmanifests no symptoms in the usual state, but can indicate problems in adverse conditions, for example, under stress, trauma or intoxication;
- development of the syndrome of insulin resistance, which entails serious disruptions in the work of the heart and blood vessels;
- active thyroid and anterior pituitary;
- malfunctions in the CNS;
- disorders of the autonomic nervous system;
- gestational diabetes, it is most often manifested during pregnancy;
- inflammation of the pancreas.
Test for glucose tolerance in pregnancydoes not apply to routine analyzes, but it is still better for a woman to go through it, especially if symptoms have appeared that indicate abnormalities so as not to miss the development of pathology and to take all measures to normalize the condition. In this case, both a woman and her unborn baby can suffer.
Who most often falls under special control to the endocrinologist?
Analysis for glucose tolerance underpregnancy or a simple person can be appointed if they are at risk. Some of the diseases that occur periodically or permanently can act as provocators, but lead to disorders in carbohydrate metabolism and the development of diabetes mellitus, such as:
- diabetics in the family;
- excess weight;
- aggravated anamnesis of the obstetrician;
- arterial hypertension;
- failures in fat metabolism;
- vascular lesion by atherosclerosis;
- gout and increased uric acid in the blood;
- periodically high sugar levels;
- chronic pathology of the kidneys, liver and cardiovascular system;
- manifestations of metabolic syndrome;
- infections of a chronic nature;
- reception of diabetogenic agents;
- age 45 years and above.
Glucose Tolerance Test Standards we have presented above.
What can affect the analysis data?
The patient, whose doctor suspected a violation of tolerance, should know that the factors of analysis can be affected by such factors:
- If you eat flour products every day: sweets, cakes, buns. In this case, glucose is simply not able to be disposed of independently.
- Excessive physical exertion, which is not canceled even on the day of the test, leads to impaired glucose tolerance.
- Smokers will have to be nervous, because their addiction can affect the results of the analysis.
- During the carrying out of the baby, a protectivemechanism of hypoglycemia, which carries much more serious harm to the unborn child than the hyperglycemic state. In this case, glucose tolerance during pregnancy can be slightly reduced. For bad results, you can also take physiological changes in carbohydrate metabolism, caused by the pancreas.
- Excess weight. This sign brings a person on the list of risks, where diabetes is one of the first places.
- The indices can also be affected by abnormalities in the work of the stomach and intestines.
All these factors can force a personworried, and in most cases not in vain. Changes in indicators should not be left without attention, after a time it is worth repeating the analysis, while excluding those factors that can affect it.
What not to do before the test?
To get the most accurate results, the patient must prepare thoroughly before the test:
- a few days before the analysis should not change anything in their habitual way of life, but that's better to correct food, carbohydrates per day need to eat no more than 150 g;
- if the analysis is scheduled for tomorrow, then the meal should be no later than 10 hours before the test;
- no cigarettes, alcohol and coffee 10 hours before the analysis;
- no unnecessary physical exertion;
- the day before it is worth to miss the intake of certain drugs: hormones, neuroleptics, diuretics;
- it is impossible to pass the analysis to women during menstruation;
- poor analysis can be obtained if the fence wasspent at a time when the patient was in a strong emotional situation, if he has progressed inflammation in the liver, an operation was recently performed;
- poor analysis may be in cases where the patient has a low percentage of potassium in the blood;
- Half an hour before the blood sample, the patient should relax and think about the good.
In some cases, the load can be carried out by injecting glucose intravenously, when to do exactly so, the doctor decides.
How is the analysis done?
First, on an empty stomach, blood is taken for analysis, and afteralready the patient is given a glucose drink. In some patients, taking a sweet syrup can cause nausea, if such symptoms appear, then you need to add a little citric acid and they will go away.
After taking glucose, the patient maywalk next to the laboratory. When the next fence is held, physicians will say, it can happen in half an hour or an hour. And so the fence will be held 5 times.
The glycemic curve is calculated fromthe numerical value of the highest glucose value and the initial concentration of sugar in the blood. To calculate at home the indicator will be difficult, so entrust counting is better to a professional who does not miss an important moment and will be able to give accurate data that is so important for the selection of further treatment.
How are violations of glucose tolerance treated?
Therapy provides for a certaindiet and elimination of disruptions in the endocrine system. Also, the level of lipid metabolism is normalized, the level of uric acid decreases. In no case is it advisable to engage in self-medication. Select an effective treatment in each individual case will only be able to specialist. Therapy of diabetes provides for compliance with all the doctor's recommendations, and this is a strict diet and taking all the prescribed medications.
As a preventive the doctor advises regularlypass the test in order to early detect failures in the body and begin urgently to eliminate them. To prevent remission of the disease, it is recommended to regularly monitor the level of blood pressure, the amount of calories eaten per day, and be sure to find time for exercise.
Tolerance to glucose is a serious criterionto assess the absorption of glucose by the body. Only if you find a violation in time, you can avoid serious consequences. Therefore, if there are symptoms that indicate a violation of tolerance, or there is a predisposition, then regular consultations and observance of recommendations will help to avoid health problems.