Insulin is produced by the pancreas.This is a special hormone, which is responsible for removing excess sugar from the blood. It is this function that is widely known. But insulin also performs other, no less significant functions.
The action of insulin
Insulin belongs to the category of polypeptide hormones, which are very important for the entire "organic universe" of man. What functions should he perform?
- It delivers amino acids to the working cells. The hormone helps to "open" the cell so that it misses glucose - the source of energy.
- Participates in the process of building muscle tissue.
- Thanks to the hormone, there is also delivery of potassium and amino acids to the cells.
The fluctuation in the level of this polypeptide hormonecan be accompanied by a headache, spontaneous pain in the digestive tract, sleepiness and constipation. In case of violations of the pancreas, the normal production of insulin is disrupted.
A reduced or elevated level of insulin in the blood is an alarm, you need to understand the reasons in time and take the necessary measures to keep your health for many years to come.
The norm of the presence of the hormone in the blood - from 5.5 to 10mcu / ml. This is the average. On an empty stomach its level is from 3 to 27 microU / ml. However, in women, during pregnancy, the hormone level is slightly higher than 6-27 μU / ml. It is also increased in elderly people.
Need to know:Measures the level of insulin only on an empty stomach. After eating, his indicator always increases. Such a blood test, when a person has eaten in the morning, will not be true. The level of insulin after a meal rises in adolescence. In childhood, there is no such dependence when producing a hormone.
In the medical environment, it is also recognized that the level of 11.5 μU / ml is already an indicator of the pre-diabetic state. That is, develops acquired diabetes.
Increased insulin in the blood
What will happen to a person's health when they are promoted?insulin? Blood sugar can be normal only temporarily in this situation. Nutrition alone carbohydrates leads to the fact that the pancreas need to keep insulin constantly at a high level. But over time, tissues become resistant to hormones, and iron drains its resources. The level of insulin begins to fall.
Glucose while passes into fatty interlayers;glycogen (unused energy) is deposited in the liver. The level of sugar in the blood does not go beyond the norms immediately, for a week or two. This process is slow. Elevated levels of the hormone insulin - it's just as unfavorable as the lowered. A person is threatened over time with such diseases:
- cardiac ischemia;
- Alzheimer's disease;
- polycystic ovary in women;
- erectile dysfunction in men;
- hypertension (high blood pressure).
If an increased insulin is found in the blood, thatit means? This means that thrombi do not dissolve, blood pressure increases, vascular elasticity is impaired, and sodium is retained in the kidneys. That is, the health situation is deteriorating all the time. According to approximate calculations, the risk of myocardial infarction increases in such people by almost 2 times.
Signs of increased insulin
It is better to detect insulin resistancebefore. While the body was not subjected to significant pathological processes. To say if the insulin is raised in the blood or not, the doctor is enough to interview the person and find out if he is troubled by such problems:
- chronic fatigue;
- difficulty concentrating;
- high blood pressure;
- weight increases;
- fat content of the skin;
If several of these symptoms are found,then you need to immediately take a blood test for glucose. And if from time to time the patient is disturbed by attacks of hypoglycemia (lowering of sugar, and sharp), then they prescribe a special diet. The sugar level is then maintained mainly with a glucose solution.
Causes of increased insulin. Insulinoma
It is important to know why insulin is raised in the blood. The reasons can be different. For example:
- prolonged hunger;
- heavy physical activity;
- taking certain medications;
- in the diet too much food rich in glucose;
- poor liver function.
However, sometimes the cause is prolonged malnutrition and bringing the nervous system to complete exhaustion. Then you need a long rest and good nutrition, so that the hormone level will return to normal.
And yet such an anomaly is caused by neoplasmin the pancreas, which is called insulinoma. With cancer, the insulin level is constantly elevated. As well as insulin accompanied by other, more significant painful symptoms.
- Weakness in the muscles.
- Visual impairment.
- Violation of speech.
- Strong headache.
- Hunger and cold sweat.
Symptoms predominate mainly in the early morning hours. Cancer of the pancreas is not treated. The tumor can only be cut and monitored so that there are no secondary tumors in the brain or liver.
How to lower the level of insulin?
But sometimes it happens that is found in the analysisIncreased glucose, blood insulin at the same time is consistent with normal performance. This analysis indicates the imminent occurrence of diabetes. The sedentary sedentary rhythm of life leads to weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Endocrinologists call them the combination of factors of the pre-diabetic state.
Insulin body insulin calledinsulin resistance. This is the first step towards a metabolic syndrome. It is this mechanism that starts when too much sweet food is taken, and the body gets used to high levels of insulin. Then, despite the fact that the pancreas produces more polypeptide hormone, glucose is not absorbed by the body as it should. This leads to obesity. But sometimes this is due to the rejection of fructose for hereditary reasons.
To prevent the process of "blocking"insulin, you need to help the body. Glucose should enter the muscles, the metabolism is activated, and the weight comes back to normal. At the same time, the level of sex hormones is normalized. That is, you need to go in for sports and go to a healthy food that suits your complexion and lifestyle.
Lowered insulin. Diabetes
Lowered insulin leads to the fact that sugarblood gradually increases. Cells can not process glucose from food. This situation is very dangerous. The increase in the sugar level is not difficult to notice. Accompany the lack of glucose symptoms such as:
- frequent breathing;
- deterioration of vision;
- loss of appetite;
- Sometimes vomiting and pain in the stomach are disturbed.
A very low level of such an important hormone is characterized by the following factors:
- A strong hunger is felt.
- An unreasonable anxiety worries.
- I want to drink.
- The temperature rises and sweat is released.
The violation of insulin production leads eventually to type 1 diabetes.
Such diabetes develops in children and young peopleoften after some diseases. In this case, it is extremely necessary to constantly monitor the glucose level with a glucometer.
Diabetic neuropathy. Consequence of diabetes
Since insulin increases the level of glucose in the blood,over time, the work of the nervous system. After 10-15 years of invariably increased blood sugar, diabetic neuropathy begins. It is divided into several types: autonomous, peripheral and focal. Most often diabetics are accompanied by signs of peripheral neuropathy. They are as follows:
- decreased sensitivity or numbness of the limbs;
- lack of coordination;
- loss of balance;
- tingling, numbness and pain in the limbs (more often in the feet).
To prevent the further development of neuropathy, you must constantly give blood for analysis and monitor the level of sugar. Refusal of smoking and alcoholic beverages is mandatory.
Of course, the disease for other reasonsthere are injuries, the effect of toxic substances, other causes. But almost always it is the acquired diabetes, which slowly develops and gradually destroys the walls of blood vessels and nervous tissue, is the cause of neuropathy.
Another consequence of diabetes are glaucoma and circulatory disorders. Blood circulation is reduced until the formation of ulcers on the limbs with subsequent amputation.
Treatment of diabetes
According to blood tests for the level of sugar, a doctorwill appoint the necessary treatment. With diabetes, which is caused by insufficient secretion of the pancreas (the first type), you have to prick insulin 2 times a day. The doctor also prescribes a diet that is devoid of sucrose, which must be observed unswervingly throughout life.
Well, diabetes of the second type is a consequence more oftenall the stresses and the wrong, sedentary lifestyle, resulting in increased insulin in the blood. This type is called insulin-independent diabetes, it is treated with certain drugs. It is desirable to find any kind of sport to your liking and give moderate physical exertion to the muscles. However, the level of insulin should also be checked constantly and consulted by the treating endocrinologist.
Proper nutrition of diabetics
The basis of diabetes treatment is diet. It depends on what the level of insulin is. If insulin is elevated in the blood, the following recommendations should be adhered to.
- Dairy products are useful, but low-fat.
- Whole grains.
- Low-fat fish.
- Eggs boiled, not more than 3 pcs. for 7 days.
- It is necessary to refuse meat, especially from too fat pork.
To eat it is necessary in strictly allotted hours. Then the body in time will produce all the necessary digestive enzymes.
And it is also important that the portions were small, but in a day you need 5 or even 6 times to eat.
We know that insulin increases blood sugar,so for those who suffer from an insulin-dependent type of diabetes, the diet is stricter. In such a diet, all calories should be strictly calculated so that insulin is sufficient for processing into the energy of each molecule of sucrose.
Life without bad habits is the best prevention
In fact, such a disease as diabetes, is almost not treated. In rare cases, it is possible to observe an improvement in the patient's condition. In the event that he is constantly under the control of doctors.
But most likely, even with the constant control of sugar, the disease will progress and will result in either a cancerous tumor, or severe obesity, shortness of breath and a heart attack.
It is best to go out for a walk,your nervous system from excessive stress with the help of physical exertion and joyful attitude to life. Moderate food, without excess fat, without fast foods will prolong your life and save you from many diseases. Not only from the insulin level.